In a computing context, access control is a security approach that regulates who or what can view or utilize resources. It is a basic security concept that reduces the risk to the company or organization.
Physical and logical access control are the two types of access control. Access to campuses, buildings, rooms, and physical IT assets is restricted via physical access control. Connections to computer networks, system files, and data are all restricted by logical access control.
Organizations utilize electronic access control systems to track employee access to restricted company locations and private regions, such as data centers, using user credentials, access card readers, auditing, and reports. To prevent unwanted access or operations, some of these systems have access control panels that restrict admittance to rooms and buildings, as well as alarms and lockdown capabilities.
Access control system evaluate needed login credentials, which can include passwords, personal identification numbers (PINs), biometric scans, security tokens, or other authentication elements, to perform identification, authentication, and authorization of individuals and entities. Multifactor authentication (MFA), which needs two or more authentication factors, is frequently used to defend access control systems as part of a layered defense.
The purpose of access control is to reduce the danger of unauthorized access to physical and logical systems posing a security risk. Access control is a critical component of security compliance programs because it guarantees that security technology and access control rules are in place to secure sensitive data, such as customer information. Access to networks, computer systems, apps, files, and sensitive data, such as personally identifiable information (PII) and intellectual property, is usually limited by infrastructure and processes in most businesses.